Rolling Stone , Issue , 19 March , pp. This article is part of a collection of material on. Polio vaccines and the origin of AIDS. It was almost thirty years ago, but I clearly remember one event on that hot and humid day early in August Like communicants in some universal mass, my two brothers, my parents and I slowly moved to the head of a very long, snaking line composed of thousands of people - a significant part of the population of Galveston, Texas.
But even assuming that a monkey version of human immunodeficiency virus exists, Gallo, like Koprowski, initially questions whether it would grow in monkey kidney cells and whether enough virus would Article on hiv in rolling stones in the preparation to infect people - perhaps through lesions in their mouths, through mucous membranes in Free continuos education for nurses mouths or since the vaccine was sprayed into people's mouths and some of it may have become airborne, through the lungs into the blood system. I think clearly that would be interesting. People with AIDs might not want the disease reported for fear of losing their insurance, their jobs, their friends. The vaccine virus was grown in tissue cultures taken from macaque monkeys before being administered to about a million people in Burundi, Rwanda, and what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo. I said, 'We have seen a few cases, but we have no idea how common this is. Herald Cox, Koprowski's superior at Lederle, had begun growing the polio virus in developing embryos in chicken eggs. H Koprowski,
Article on hiv in rolling stones. Vaccine Science Articles
Shana Krochmal, a spokeswoman for the San Francisco-based Stop Aids Project, Article on hiv in rolling stones 'There is nothing more frustrating rilling when a story is wrong and inaccurate, and that's all that this story is. Email required Address never made public. To grasp how this possibility relates to polio vaccine used in Africa, it helps to know how polio came to be suppressed in most of the world. E Hooper, The author of one of the studies, evolutionary biologist Edward Holmes of Oxford Universitycommented in light of the new evidence: "Hooper's evidence was always flimsy, and now it's untenable. It's estimated that early on, at least, the polio vaccines administered to many hig of people in the U. Phylogeny and the origin of HIV-1". Biologic products, Boyshorts panty gallerie kidney cells for cultures and blood serum for media, were sometimes harvested from local primates and used in the production process if wild or captive populations of appropriate species were available.
There were the usual calls from the far right, attacking me for being progay.
- In the last decade, drugs used for the treatment of HIV-infected patients have become the most frequent cause of drug-containing urinary calculi.
- Misconceptions about Vaccines.
- The Feb.
- There were the usual calls from the far right, attacking me for being progay.
Rolling StoneIssue19 Marchpp. This article is part of a collection of material on. Polio vaccines and the origin of AIDS. It was almost thirty years ago, but I clearly remember one event on that hot and humid day early in August Like communicants in some universal mass, my two brothers, my parents and I slowly moved to the head of a very long, snaking line composed of thousands of people - a significant part of the population of Galveston, Texas. All were awaiting admittance into the central hallway of Ball High School so we could approach a simple wooden table - a kind of altar of science - where a volunteer nurse handed each individual a tiny paper cup containing a sugar cube.
I gazed intently at mine. One side had a faint yellow tinge and dark specks where the half-cubic-centimeter or so drop of liquid vaccine had landed. Though I was surprised that my cube was so dirty looking, I popped it in Fabio alonso model pictures mouth, chewed and swallowed.
The rest of my family followed suit. Over the next two years, the same ritual was played out in towns and cities across America. These other patient believers, like me and my family, were seeking not life eternal but science's more secular but no less miraculous promise: everlasting immunity from the most dreaded scourge of the Forties and Fifties - paralytic poliomyelitis.
Before the polio vaccines were introduced in the Fifties, the disease had struck about 22, people a year in the United States alone - often young children. The new, vibrant medium of television showed kids like us shackled by leg braces and crutches or imprisoned in iron lungs - huge cylinders covering all but their heads.
I had an even more terrifying image of the ravages of polio: A close friend of my parents', a vital young physician named Martin Schneider, had contracted the disease in and would spend the last two decades of his life paralyzed from the waist down and confined to a wheelchair. In one of the greatest triumphs of twentieth-century medicine, Article on hiv in rolling stones promise to deliver us from that crippling contagion was kept. The one-two punch of the "polio shots" developed by Dr.
Jonas Salk and the oral vaccine developed later by Dr. Albert Sabin effectively eradicated polio in developed countries and later in much of the Third World. But there was a shadow over the conquest of polio. It's estimated that early on, at least, the polio vaccines administered to many millions of people in the U. What Salk and the other pioneers Article on hiv in rolling stones the polio vaccine found out was that accidents did happen. In the preparation of massive amounts of various polio vaccines - either weakened or killed virus that causes recipients to form protective antibodies - things occasionally went horribly wrong.
Hundreds Life is good electronics latin america people actually contracted polio by the very means they sought to protect themselves - and some died.
Researchers who cultured the virus using the tissues of animals were stricken and sometimes killed by other viruses infecting the animals. And finally, the medium that scientists used to produce the vaccine - the kidneys of monkeys caught in the wild - was found to be sometimes contaminated by simian viruses that were later passed on to millions of unsuspecting people. There is the prospect that we may find out something else after the fact: that another polio vaccine may have inadvertently infected its recipients with an even more fearsome and insidious virus, the one that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome - AIDS.
In AugustBlaine Elswood, an articulate AIDS treatment activist and diligent sleuth of medical literature who works at the University of California at San Francisco, mailed me a terse note paper-clipped to several xeroxed items from medical and scientific journals raising the issue. We'd had a casual, two-year telephone-and-mail acquaintance ever since Elswood had been recommended to me as a source by a West Coast dermatology professor working on new treatments for AIDS.
Clearly a maverick, Elswood was proudest of having confounded "guerrilla clinics," which research and provide alternative drugs for those with AIDS, in San Francisco and elsewhere. Elswood is neither a physician nor a Ph. As I soon find out, Elswood is right. When I broach this idea to Salk, who is once again working to develop a vaccine, this time for AIDS, he flatly refuses to discuss the subject.
What value is it to anyone to try to imply such a cause and effect relationship? AIDS first appeared in equatorial Africa, many scientists now believe.
The earliest evidence of its presence on the African continent dates from a plasma sample drawn in in what was then Leopoldville, the Belgian Congo, and is now Kinshasa, Zaire. Mirko D.
There's also a tantalizing connection with monkeys and other primates: Several African species carry a virus related to the human immunodeficiency virus HIVwhich causes AIDS in human beings. Although HIV has yet to be found in monkeys, a "missing link" simian virus much closer to the human virus has been identified in two wild chimpanzees from Gabon. This has led to speculation that a chimp or a monkey with an AIDS virus identical to the human virus will eventually turn up.
Scientists have proposed a grab bag of ideas to explain how the disease may have leaped the vast chasm from monkey to man. There is, for instance, the kinky-African-sex theory.
It involves a bizarre sexual practice in which, to heighten sexual arousal, male and female members of tribes bordering the large lakes of Central Africa introduce monkey blood into their pubic areas, thighs and backs.
Robert Gallo. Gallo suggests that since monkeys in Africa are killed for food, a hunter might have nicked himself while skinning an infected monkey and thus might have mixed virus-laden monkey blood with his own; repeated such incidents over time, he argues, could have infected enough people to spark an epidemic. Last Thanksgiving, an Oxford clinician writing in the prestigious British scientific magazine Nature presented another startling hypothesis: that the disease may have sprung from scientific experiments that lasted into the Fifties in which chimpanzee and monkey blood was directly injected into human beings to see if people could carry the form of the malaria parasite that infests those primates.
There are problems with each theory. The first couple are basically speculations that can't easily be con firmed or tested scientifically. Anyhow, those African sexual and hunting practices presumably have been going on for thousands of years; the AIDS epidemic is new.
The idea involving the malaria experiments is extremely provocative. It may prove to be more than that if material from the original experiments still exists and can be scientifically checked. But the number of people involved in the tests was tiny: As discussed in Nature, a total of about seventy people received primate blood or primate-tainted human blood during the entire range of the malaria experiments, which ran from to Still, AIDS had Christine hauptmann fhm pics start somewhere, so like the other theories, this one has to be considered.
Sprinkled through the medical literature of the last thirty-five years are facts that buttress the unnerving prospect that HIV, the AIDS virus, may have crossed the species barrier as an unintended byproduct of a live-polio-virus vaccine. There was, in fact, an almost forgotten mass-vaccination campaign in which an oral polio vaccine was administered to at leastpeople, and perhaps more than half a million people, in equatorial Africa from to One of the two vaccines used in that experimental effort was subsequently reported to have been contaminated with an unknown monkey virus.
The timing seems right. A process called genetic sequencing, which tracks the evolution of virus by measuring genetic changes, can read the molecular history of Latin text martial epigrams disease. According to Gerald Myers, the federal government's chief expert in genetic sequencing, HIV dates from aboutassuming it arose from a single, common ancestor.
There Fat blonde young natural obstacles preventing a virus from crossing the barrier to become established and thrive in a new species. But it happens. And when it does, the virus frequently becomes much deadlier in the new species than it was in the original hosts.
In recent decades, some scientists believe, live-virus vaccines may have actually helped transfer viruses across species lines. Perhaps the classic example is canine parvovirus, or CPV, which abruptly appeared in dogs in and within months had become a widespread animal epidemic - or epizootic - on virtually every continent, causing entirely new dog diseases of the intestines and heart muscle.
CPV is intriguingly similar in its genetic structure to a cat disease called feline panleukopenia virus FPLVbut it's even more similar to the vaccine for this disease. This has led several virologists to suggest that by accident or design, the cat virus most likely was introduced into dog cells in the laboratory, where the strain adapted itself to the new host.
A article in the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine noted that case and a number of other cross-species transfers of viruses in the context of AIDS. To grasp how this possibility relates to polio vaccine used in Africa, it helps to know how polio came to be suppressed in most of the world.
Jonas Salk, backed by a private philanthropy popularly known as the March of Dimes, introduced the first widely used polio vaccine in His vaccine was a virulent form of the polio virus that had been killed by formaldehyde. This dead, or "inactivated," virus was injected into people to provoke the body's immune system to manufacture disease-fighting antibodies that would repel the wild, paralyzing types of polio.
But medical science ultimately rejected Salk's shots as the vaccine of choice in favor of a weakened but still living virus administered by mouth - in Albert Sabin's sugar cube. Unlike the Salk shots, which were believed to require periodic booster vaccinations, the oral polio vaccine conferred lifetime immunity. It could be taken by mouth and required no injections; and the live vaccine silently spread the weakened, non-paralyzing virus even to those who failed to take the oral vaccine.
These "susceptibles" would simply catch the weakened virus and get the infection without noticeable symptoms. They also would become immune to paralytic polio. Polio vaccines are produced by selecting weakened strains of polio virus and then placing them in tissue cultures - live cells from primates. Either monkey or human cells will work, but researchers selected monkeys because their tissue was more available and there were fears that human cell lines might spread cancer.
The unrecognized danger, though, was this: Because monkeys are genetically similar to human beings, some simian viruses can leap the species barrier with devastating effect. The virus then enters the cell and reproduces itself. All the polio viruses grown to produce the mass vaccines in the Fifties were fed one particularly nourishing medium: fresh monkey kidneys. And throughout the Fifties - a period that was barely beyond the dawn of scientific knowledge regarding tissue culture - some of those monkey kidneys were infected with numerous monkey viruses.
Scientists knew about some of these viruses and developed tests to identify and then eliminate the tissues that contained them. One of the earliest and deadliest was the so-called monkey B virus - a herpes virus first identified and isolated in by Sabin after it killed a medical colleague at New York's Bellevue Hospital. The unfortunate polio researcher had been bitten by a monkey. Lee, continues: "At the autopsy I collected specimens and isolated a virus.
Because I was too green behind my ears in virology, I would not accept [it] as being an ordinary herpes virus with which human beings are infected - which a professor at Columbia University, who knew much more than I, did. While working at the Lister Institute, in England, inSabin was able to prove that what he had found was a distinct virus. And inwhen he was working in Cincinnati, Ohio, he again isolated the virus after another physician researcher was killed by it.
Deaths from monkey B virus, though infrequent, have continued, the latest a veterinarian at a south Texas primate facility who died of monkey B virus last fall. So monkey B was kept out of the polio vaccines. But there was another monkey virus that polio researchers missed. Between andan estimated 10 million to 30 million Americans and scores of millions of people around the world were exposed to a virus that infected the kidneys of Asian rhesus monkeys imported mainly from India.
The virus survived the formaldehyde that Salk used to kill his polio viruses. Since researchers have tested monkeys for SV40 - so called because it was the fortieth such Article on hiv in rolling stones virus identified - before using their kidneys for vaccine production.
SV40 was delivered straight into people's bloodstreams along with their Salk shots and via sugar cubes in field trials of the weakened living virus developed by Sabin. Though it was later shown to cause cancer in hamsters and to Gay pride in south carolina human cells in test tubes - thus predisposing these cells to cancer - SV40 has not been proven to generate illness in human beings.
Nevertheless, researchers at Johns Hopkins recently discovered that when they injected cells treated with SV40 into "nude" mice, which lack an immune system, the mice developed Kaposi's sarcoma-like tumors, similar to those afflicting many AIDS victims. Remarkably, considering the large numbers of people who received the SVcontaminated polio vaccines, no one has conducted a major epidemiological study in the U.
May 20, · What It’s Like to Be HIV Positive in the Military Soldiers can be prosecuted for having sex, latest medications aren’t widely available – are the armed forces living in the s when it. The Feb. 6 issue of Rolling Stone features what appears to be a groundbreaking investigative report, the kind of story that helped establish the magazine as a journalistic force in the s and Author: Newsweek Staff. THE ORIGIN OF AIDS By Tom Curtis. Rolling Stone Magazine, March 19th, African Genesis "It's Not Good to Know Too Much" The Fortieth Monkey Virus The Marburg Monkey Virus The Congo Vaccine Monkey AIDS Contamination A Tale of Two Maps The Zaire Connection Testing Seed Stock? Monkey Virus == Human Virus A Theoretical Possibility It Could Happen.
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But with what we know now, it's clear there was a certain hubris involved in the rough-and-ready campaigns to conquer polio. There was no way of knowing what percentage of gay men were looking to get infected but that it was likely to be very small, he added. Namespaces Article Talk. Once that troubling discovery was made, in , vaccine producers shifted to kidneys from African green monkeys, which in the wild were free of SV AIDS and the polio vaccine. After hearing how the polio vaccines were prepared and delivered in the Fifties, Gallo concedes that in some fashion this way of transmitting AIDS is "a theoretical possibility. Notify me of new comments via email. Researchers who cultured the virus using the tissues of animals were stricken and sometimes killed by other viruses infecting the animals. A very ancient virus in man. Might the one that causes AIDS be one of them? A process called genetic sequencing, which tracks the evolution of virus by measuring genetic changes, can read the molecular history of a disease. How can I argue against checking the seed stocks? What Salk and the other pioneers of the polio vaccine found out was that accidents did happen. Top 20 Questions about Vaccination Detailed answers to the most frequently asked questions about vaccination. See Aside 2.
The Feb. It was exactly this type of reporting that doomsayers feared would disappear after former laddie-mag editor Ed Needham was named the magazine's managing editor last year.
Human rights activists have warned that the lives of gay people in Uganda are in danger, after a newspaper published a story featuring the names and in some cases photographs of homosexuals under the headline "Hang Them". At least one woman named in the story has been forced to leave her home after neighbours pelted it with stones, while several other people have been verbally abused, according to the campaign group Sexual Minorities Uganda. Stosh Mugisha, who works for an organisation helping gay people with HIV, said that she was sitting in an internet cafe soon after the article appeared when people suddenly started pointing at her. I stopped to buy cigarettes at my usual shop, but the woman said, 'No, no, you are homosexual. I could not believe it — I thought it was a joke. Luckily I managed to escape. Mugisha said that since the story appeared her family had turned against her.